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  1. And again,,This is my assignment in Higher Plant subject..
    Hope it can be usefull information.. :)

    Forests are a particular focus of environmental concern. In many countries the value of non-timber forest benefits - many of them non-marketed - may be increasing faster than the prices of wood products. One result is that certain forest areas are increasingly valued more for the environmental benefits they provide than for their timber. Hence the “set-side” of timber-rich areas for wildlife conservation, and the increasing attention of public agencies to managing forests for recreational or aesthetic values.
    Forests have been central to human survival for as long as we have inhabited the earth. How people use and value forests at a particular place and time, however, depends in large part on their scarcity or abundance relative to changing human needs. In recent years, human population growth, migration and industrialisation, and other socio-economic changes have had a dramatic impact on the world's forest resources.

    Malaysia is one of the country that have the most contributor to the world non timber forest product. With large area including peninsular Malaysia, sabah, and Sarawak. It is very important for the economic, technological and implication. Beside that, Malaysia also have very big diversity of plants including flowering plant and ferns also. Moreover, Malaysia is in tropical area ,and the tropical rainforest occupy 57% the land area.
    Non timber forest product (NTFP) play the important role for society in economy and daily activity in Malaysia. NTFP is the product of a forest that is not including the wood. For example,it can be roots, leaves, bark for medicine, utensil, etc. and also can be included as the edible plants like vegetable, fruits, mushrooms,and another product like honey, resin, fodder,rattan, and bamboo. This is particularly true for large segments of the population in many Asian countries. In the last few decades, the accelerated rate of forest conversion and logging has led to a decimation of these resources, sometimes to the point of their disappearance. Despite their importance in the socio-economic and cultural contribution to the marginalised people, little effort has been given to manage these resources on a sustainable basis through proper harvesting, restocking, and artificial propagation. The lack of scientific knowledge of these resources, especially their technological properties and processing methods, has partly resulted in their desultory development. Royalties collected from non-wood forest products contribute substantially to the revenue of each state. On average (1981 to 1990), rattan contributed about 13.8 percent of the total royalties collected from non-wood forest products, while bamboo accounted for about 71 percent. In Malaysia, harvested non-timber forest products include rattan, bamboo, firewood, charcoal, damar, palm, wood-oil, gums/resins and medicinal plants. Due to variation in measurement units, the small quantities harvested and the low transaction rates, NTFP production volumes are not available. Production can only be estimated by examining royalties collected by the states.
    Despite the immense importance of non timber forest plant resources, their value is rarely taken into account in land-use planning Nor are the economic values of these products and the services they provide rarely taken into account in assessing Gross Domestic Product (GDP). These omissions need to be corrected, as NTFP make particularly significant contribution to household incomes of the rural poor. Rural people, moving from a subsistence lifestyle to a cash economy, have relatively few options for generating income. They can sell agricultural or pastoral produce, work for a cash wage in agriculture or industry, or sell retail goods in local or regional marketplaces. For the rural poor without land or livestock, harvesting of wild resources is a common option. Wild and naturalized plants provide a "green social security" to billions of people in the form of low cost building materials, income, fuel, food supplements and traditional medicines. In some cases the revenues earned with commercialised NTFP is the only source of cash income, which increases the dependency of the people on these commercial interesting NTFP resources 
    Cash income from the sale of NTFP can be very variable, however, even for the same resource category . In general, returns to labour from NTFP sales are usually higher than the average local agricultural wage, with income usually higher for externally marketed products. Subsistence values are often also high, particularly for poorer rural households.
    Traded NTFP contribute to the fulfillment of daily needs and provide the employment and job for people as well as income. Internationally, traded NTFP for example aromatic oils, and medicine plants can achieve very high prices. 
    There is a lot of product that come from the non timber sources in Malaysia, like rattan, latex, dammar, bamboo,fruits, honey, and medicinal plants. And this product was ranged from RM2,5 million to 3,8 million.
    Rattan product emerge as the most important products, because rattan ranked the highest value. It is issued not only in the local economy market, but also in international market. In Malaysia, rattan is categorized as major forest product. Indeed, it harvesting influences the economic, social and cultural livelihood in local communities as well as the long term national socioeconomic development. The planting of this resource, mainly that of Calamus manan, is conducted by the government and private sector. To date more than 31,000 ha have been planted. Out of this, 7,000 ha have been planted in rubber plantations throughout the country (Abd. Latif & Aminuddin 1996). Other large plantations in Sabah are planting mainly C. caesius and C. trachycoleus. So far more than 10,000 ha have been established. Other rattan species that have been looked into include C. scipionum and C. palustris.
    The people in Village in Malaysia use the rattan from long time ago, they use it to binding, weaving, and supporting material for household items. For example baskets, traps, walls, utensil, and musical instrument. The rattan furniture industry for Peninsular Malaysia is quite dynamic. There are about 700 rattan mills and 525 are engaged in manufacturing activities, with about 13% of the latter being export oriented. The rest are mainly cottage and small-scale industries. The rattan industry requires about 12 million 3m-length sticks of the elite cane Calamus manan, and 45 million 6m-length sticks of the small diameter cane C. caesius, annually. Shortages of these high-quality canes are being felt. Other canes of lesser quality are also being used by the industry. While the widely dispersed rattan processing mills tend to be concentrated in the state having large forest areas where rattans are commonly found, the manufacturing industry is predominantly located in the west coast areas where large market and basic amenities are readily available . Peninsular Malaysia has an abundant supply of raw rattan. The total gross value collected could amount to over RM 5 million a month. The value can increase to more than 21-25 times if the manufacturers concentrate on downstream processing as in furniture or semi-processed products such as ropes and binds which are traditionally imported from Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia or Taiwan (Abd. Latif 1989). Since the ban on the export of raw rattan and the imposition of high import duty for the semi-processed products in 1989, a shift from the traditional practice of exporting the raw and semi-processed products to more value-added finished products has increased the foreign exchange earnings as well as the employment opportunities in the rural urban sectors.
    Bamboo is next to rattan in terms of economic importance especially in Malaysia. It is one of the non-wood resources found growing wild in the forests. Many Asian countries have a long tradition in the use of bamboo for the manufacture of a wide variety of products such as blinds, chopsticks, mats and baskets, farming implements etc. Other uses include scaffolding, houses and bridges. In some countries like India, bamboo is one of the important raw materials for pulp and paper making. In Malaysia, bamboo has not been utilized as extensively and its use is limited to the production of poultry cages, vegetable baskets, utensil products etc.
    In Malaysia, bamboo is common from sea level up to 1,000 meters. Bamboo occurs in significant quantities in disturbed areas such as logged-over forests, wasteland or in marginal localities fringing the forest, river banks and hill slopes. It grows in pure stands or with other tree species in the forest. It does not favor water-logged conditions and is seldom found in swampy areas. Bamboo is commonly cultivated in the rural areas for daily use by local communities and in urban areas as ornamental plants.. 
    Bamboo usually occurs in significant quantities in disturbed areas such as logged-over forests, wastelands or in marginal localities fringing the forest. Kamaruzaman (1992) estimated that about 587 million pieces of approximately 3.3 million tonnes standing stock were available from the forest. Lockman et al. (1994), on the other hand, estimated that more than 110 million culms were available in about 420,000 ha of forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia. No reports on East Malaysia (i.e. Sabah and Sarawak) are available for the general consensus. More comprehensive information on this resource especially with respect to the pattern and distribution of commercial and less commercial bamboo species is therefore needed to foster the infrastructural development of the industries.
    Cottage industries making handicraft items are mainly found in the west coast states of Peninsular Malaysia, whereas industries making poultry cages and vegetables baskets tend to concentrate around vegetable plantations around Tapah in Perak . The local market for bamboo products is worth about USD 3 million annually (Aminuddin & Abd. Latif 1994). Lately, there has been an increased utilisation of bamboo by industries. This could probably be attributed to the increasing level of difficulties in gaining commonly used timbers from the forest, hygienic concerns especially for cheap disposable items used in contact with food; and the awareness to sustain the healthy surrounding green environment within the society. The popularisation of the fact that bamboo is an environment friendly material (fast growing, high yielding renewable resource and a secondary forested species) has also resulted in the spring-back of bamboo industries (especially those machine-intensive) from its seven static years in 1988 to 1995.
    Tropical forest in Malaysia contain large number of medicinal plants also. They are important as the alternative sources of medicine for the local people. And these medicinal plants are being marketed , and the significant market value have been arisen. The increasing awareness of herbal remedies and the demand of herbal products have led to crucial requirement of the local resources by the traditional medicine industries. For sustainable management of medicinal plants in the forest, there is a need to place proper values (potential and extracted values) that reveal the importance of these resources. These values could increase thee environmental benefits, important to decision-makers, that affect the environment if optimal choices are to be made. By using market price approach, the economic values (residual value) of medicinal plants were estimated at three study sites, namely Gunung Raya, Bukit Perak and Gunung Jerai Forest Reserves at Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. The study revealed that the average total residual values for medicinal plants per hectare in Gunung Raya Forest Reserve were RM1,654.87, RM3,746.07 at Bukit Perak Forest Reserve and RM964.53 at Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve. The total requirement of local medicinal plants by the industries (476,339 kg) per year were found exceeding the total collection of medicinal plants (103,620 kg) per year, showing the high dependency of traditional medicine industries on the local resources. From the production function analysis, the workers and harvesting tools were insufficiently used during the harvesting session. 

    Malaysia is one of the big producer of non timber forest product in the world such as Rattan, bamboo, rubber, etc. And this product give the important role for the economic growth in Malaysia. Many people also get the benefits from this product in their daily life as local society. The development of non timber forestry sector statistical systems must be a continuous process moving with the anticipated rapid pace of change in the sector. Under such management, the emphasis reflects wider forestry issues, such as the needs to sustain production of NTFPs, enhance the protective functions of forests and conserve biological diversity. With these broadening approaches to management, data requirements will similarly expand beyond the present statutory and routine needs. However, the additional information will enable forest management practices to be more effectively evaluated against sustainable forest management criteria. So, this Non timber forest product should be managed wisely so that it can not be lost in the future, and can be used in todays life to increase the country device. There is so many Non timber forest product in Malaysia that have not discovered yet. And we hope that it can be found and can be usefull for the prosperous of the country. 

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